Yese S-ERGOS ™ Yakagadzirwa muTaiwan - Iyo # 1 Wiricheya Brand * Mari Inowanikwa *

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Vanopfuura bhiriyoni vanhu munyika nhasi vanofungidzirwa kuti vanogara neimwe nzira ye kuremara, iyo inoenderana neinenge 15% yevagari vepasi kana munhu mumwe muvanhu vanomwe. Pakati pemamirioni 110 (2.2%) uye mamirioni 190 (3.8%) vanhu vane makore gumi nemashanu zvichikwira vane matambudziko akakosha mukushanda, nepo vamwe vana mamirioni makumi mapfumbamwe nemapfumbamwe, kana mumwe chete muvane makumi maviri vevaya vari pasi pemakore gumi nemashanu vanogara nepakati nepakati kuremara. Uyezve, mitengo ye kuremara iri kuwedzera muchikamu nekuda kwevanhu vakwegura uye kuwedzera kwehutano husingaperi mamiriro, nepo maitiro epasirese e kuremara zvinokanganiswa nemaitiro mu Utano hwakanaka uye zvakatipoteredza uye zvimwe zvinhu, zvakaita sekukanganiswa kwemigwagwa, kudonha, mhirizhonga, njodzi dzekukurumidzira dzinosanganisira njodzi dzinongoitika dzega nekukonana, kudya zvisina hutano uye kushandisa zvinodhaka. Vakadzi, vanhu vakuru, uye varombo vanokanganiswa zvisingaenzaniswi ne kuremara nevana kubva kumhuri dzine hurombo, zvizvarwa zvemo uye avo vari mumapoka emadzinza mashoma vari panjodzi yakakura kwazvo yekusangana kuremara. Kuwanda kwe kuremara ndiko zvakare yakakura munyika dzinotambira mari yepasi pane nyika dzine mari yepamusoro dzinofungidzirwa kuti makumi masere muzana yevanhu vane kurarama hurema mune dzichiri kusimukira kana dzakaderera-zviwanikwa nyika. Kuremara yakasiyana kwazvo. Nepo vamwe Utano hwakanaka kushamwaridzana na hurema mhedzisiro mune hutano husina kutsarukana uye hwakakura hwehutano hunodiwa, vamwe havadaro. [1]

kuremara yakave yakasimbiswa senhau yekodzero dzevanhu muzvinyorwa zvakasiyana-siyana zvepasi rose kusanganisira World Program of Action Concerning Akaremara People (1982), Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), uye Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for People with Disabilities (1993) uye nguva pfupi yadarika Chibvumirano cheUnited Nations pamusoro pekodzero dzevanhu vakaremara (2006) izvo kusvika parizvino ndiko kucherechedzwa kwakanyanya kwekodzero dzevanhu dzehurema zvichitsanangudza kodzero dzevanhu, tsika nemagariro, zvematongerwo enyika, zvemagariro, uye zvehupfumi zvevanhu vakaremara. [2]

Sangano Romubatanidzwa Wenyika Dzepasi Pose pamusoro pekodzero dzevanhu vakaremara

Pa 13 Zvita 2006 iyo Sangano Romubatanidzwa Wenyika Dzepasi Pose pamusoro pekodzero dzevanhu vakaremara (UNCRPD) uye yayo Inesarudzo Protocol (A / RES / 61 /106) yakagamuchirwa kuUnited Nations Headquarter kuNew York, ichivhura siginecha musi wa30 Kurume 2007 uye pakupedzisira ikatanga kushanda musi wa3 Chivabvu 2008, ikave mutemo wepasi rose. Kunyange paine kodzero dzevanhu dzinoshanda kumunhu wese, UNCRPD inotarisa mukuona kuti munhu wese anoziva kuti kodzero idzi dzinoshandawo kuvanhu vakaremara.[3] Inotarisirwa sechiridzwa chekodzero dzevanhu chine chimiro chakajeka, chekusimudzira magariro, UNCRPD "inotora chikamu chakakura chevanhu vakaremara uye inosimbisa kuti vanhu vese vane mhando dzese dzekuremara vanofanirwa kunakidzwa nekodzero dzese dzevanhu uye rusununguko rwakakosha, kujekesa kuti zvikamu zvese zvekodzero kunyorera kune vanhu vakaremara uye kunozivisa nzvimbo dzinofanirwa kugadziriswa vanhu vakaremara kuti vashandise kodzero dzavo nenzvimbo dzakatyorerwa kodzero dzavo, uye panochengetedzwa kodzero dzadzo ". Chinangwa chayo chese "ndechekusimudzira, kuchengetedza, nekuona kunakidzwa kuzere nekuenzana kwekodzero dzevanhu uye rusununguko rwakakosha nevanhu vakaremara uye kusimudzira kuremekedza hunhu hwavo".[3][4]

Kurongwa kwepasi rose kwekushanda, kuremara uye Hutano [5]

kuremara yakawedzera kucherechedzwa sekodzero dzevanhu nekusimudzira nyaya zvichitevera kupinda musimba kweUNCRPD, nehumwe humbowo huri kuwedzera hunoratidza kuti vanhu vane kuremara vanoona zvakaipisisa zviwanikwa zvehupfumi pamwe nehurombo kupfuura vanhu vasina hurema. UNCRPD inofambira mberi kuremara shandura zviri pamutemo kuburikidza nekubata kwakanangana kwevanhu vakaremara kuburikidza nekushandiswa kwechirongwa chekodzero dzevanhu. Mhedziso yaro ndeyekuti vanhu vakaremara havafanirwe kutorwa se "zvinhu" zvekutarisirwa, asi "vanotongwa" vanokodzera kuremekedzwa zvakaenzana uye kunakidzwa kwekodzero dzevanhu.

Zvisinei nekuzivikanwa uku ruzivo rwesainzi uye kuziva kwepasirese kwe kuremara yakaramba ichishomeka, pasina chibvumirano pane tsananguro dze kuremara uye ruzivo rwepasi rose rwunofananidzwa nezve zviitiko, kugoverwa uye maitiro e kuremara kunyangwe magwaro mashoma anotsanangura mabudiro akaita nyika imwe neimwe nekuvandudza maringe nehukama nevanhu vane kuremara. Mukupindura kune aya mamiriro, iyo World Health Assembly (resolution 58.23 pa "kuremara, kusanganisira dziviriro, Management and Rehabilitation ”) yakakumbira kuburitswa kweWorld Report pa kuremara zvichibva pane hwakanakisa humbowo hwesainzi, uhwo hwakazogadzirwa neWorld Health Organisation (WHO) mukubatana neWorld Bank, sechiitiko chekare chakaratidza kubatsira kwekubatana pakati pemasangano ekuwedzera ruzivo, kuda kwezvematongerwo enyika uye chiito kumatunhu ese.

Kuti uwane rumwe ruzivo nezve iyo Sangano Romubatanidzwa Wenyika Dzepasi Pose pamusoro pekodzero dzevanhu vakaremara (UNCRPD) tinya pano kana kuwana Chibvumirano cheUnited Nations nezve Kodzero dzevanhu na kuremara zvakazara, tinya pano.

World Report pamusoro kuremara

zvepasi rose kuremara Yekuita Chirongwa Chinangwa 2

Iyo World Report pamusoro Kuremara, yakanangiswa kune vanoita mutemo, varapi, vanzveri, vadzidzi, masangano ekuvandudza, nemasangano evagari, yakaburitswa muna 2011 neWorld Health Organisation neWorld Bank, vakaunganidza humbowo hwakawanda hwokuti, pasi rese, vanhu vakaremara varombo kuwana rubatsiro rwehutano uye mhedzisiro yehutano husina kunaka kupfuura vanhu vasina kugadzikana, nekusiyana uku kwakanyanya munzvimbo dzine mari shoma, mukati mayo vanhu vazhinji munyika vanozviwana vari mukati. Misiyano iyi ine chekuita nezveese mamiriro ehutano nehutano uye yakaratidza izvozvo kuremara zvinogona kutungamira kune yakaderera mwero yekurarama uye hurombo kuburikidza nekushaikwa kwekuwana dzidzo nedzemabasa, uye kuburikidza nekuwedzera kwemari inoenderana ne kuremara, izvo zvinonyanya kukonzerwa nezvipingaidzo zvavanosangana nazvo muhupenyu hwavo hwezuva nezuva, kwete hwavo kuremara. [2]


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